Data Vault Architecture: What is It & Why Do You Need It?

Updated December 11th, 2023
Data vault architecture

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According to a recent BARC study on data warehouse and data vault adoption trends, 62% of best-in-class companies now fully or mostly rely on commercial tools for automation, which includes aspects such as data integration, metadata management, and data model generation. This methodology revolutionizes the way organizations handle vast and varied data sets, providing a scalable, flexible, and robust framework for data warehousing.

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What is data vault architecture?

Data vault architecture is a specific approach to designing data warehouses. Developed by Dan Linstedt in the 1990s, this methodology focuses on the long-term sustainability, scalability, and flexibility of the data warehouse environment.

The idea of a data vault architecture is to create a framework that can easily adapt to changes in business requirements, systems, and data sources. This approach makes it less cumbersome to maintain and update the data warehouse over time.

In this article, we will learn about the core benefits of a data vault architecture, look at an example, and understand its challenges from a B2B perspective.

Let’s dive in!

Table of contents

  1. What is data vault architecture?
  2. 5 Unignorable benefits of a data vault architecture
  3. Key components of a data vault architecture
  4. Example of a data vault architecture: Taking a close look from a B2B perspective
  5. 5 Critical challenges of using a data vault architecture
  6. 6 Typical problems that data vault architecture can solve
  7. Where to learn about data vault architecture: Books and resources
  8. In summary
  9. Related reads

5 Unignorable benefits of a data vault architecture

Data vault architecture has emerged as a popular choice for modern data warehouse design, thanks in part to its ability to handle complexity and adapt to change. It provides an organized, systematic, and auditable means to integrate disparate data sources in a way that is both scalable and agile.

Here’re the key benefits of adopting a data vault architecture for your data warehouse:

  1. Scalability
  2. Auditability and traceability
  3. Agility
  4. Parallelism
  5. Resilience to change

Now, let us look at each of the benefits in brief:

1. Scalability

Data vault architecture excels in its ability to scale. Its modular design allows for easy addition or removal of data sources without requiring a redesign of the existing data warehouse structure.

The architecture divides the data into hubs, links, and satellites, each serving a specific purpose. This separation allows for independent scaling of individual components, making it easier to adapt to growing data volumes and new data sources over time.

2. Auditability and traceability

Data vault’s commitment to retaining all historical changes to data gives it a strong advantage in auditability and traceability. Unlike other data warehouse architectures that might overwrite old data with new information, data vault maintains a history.

This is crucial for industries like healthcare and finance, where regulatory compliance requires detailed audit trails. Knowing exactly what data changed, when it changed, and where it came from becomes significantly simpler.

3. Agility

The data vault architecture is designed with change in mind. Whether it’s changing business rules, merging disparate data sources, or accommodating new data types, the architecture provides a flexible framework that can adapt without requiring a complete overhaul.

This makes it possible to respond more swiftly to business needs or market changes, giving your organization a competitive edge.

4. Parallelism

Data vault is conducive to parallel processing, which is essential for improving data load and query performance. Given its modular structure, different data loading or extraction tasks can be performed concurrently.

This reduces the time it takes to refresh the data in the warehouse and makes near real-time analytics more achievable.

5. Resilience to change

One of the most significant benefits of data vault is its resilience to change. In traditional data warehouse architectures, a change in one part of the system could necessitate changes across the entire architecture.

In data vault, the isolation of different types of data into hubs, links, and satellites minimizes such dependencies. For example, if an attribute of a business entity changes, only the corresponding satellite table would typically need to be updated, leaving the hub and link structures untouched.

The data vault architecture offers a robust and flexible framework for building data warehouses that can easily adapt to evolving business requirements and data landscapes. Its benefits in scalability, auditability, agility, parallelism, and resilience make it a compelling choice for organizations looking to build a future-proof data warehouse.

Key components of a data vault architecture

Understanding the key components of data vault architecture is critical for both the design and the implementation of a data warehouse using this methodology. Data vault focuses on ensuring long-term sustainability, and it does so by compartmentalizing the data warehouse into specific types of tables, each serving a unique function.

Here are the primary components in a data vault architecture:

  1. Hubs
  2. Links
  3. Satellites

Let us look at each of the above components in brief:

1. Hubs

Hubs serve as the foundational elements in a data vault architecture. They contain unique business keys, which are identifiers for core business concepts or entities such as customers, products, or employees.

Each hub table has a minimalistic design, containing only the unique business key and some system-generated fields for data management, like a record timestamp. Hubs provide stability because business keys rarely change, making them reliable anchors around which the rest of the data vault is built.

Links act as the relationship managers within the data vault. They define how hubs (business entities) relate to each other, thereby essentially depicting business processes or transactions.

A link table will contain keys from the hubs it is connecting, and like hubs, may also have system-generated fields like a record timestamp. Links are integral for capturing the many-to-many relationships that often exist between business entities. For example, a link could represent an order, linking a customer hub to a product hub.

3. Satellites

Satellites store the descriptive, contextual, or time-dependent information about the business concepts or the relationships between them. Attached to either hubs or links, they contain attributes that provide additional detail.

For example, a customer hub might have an associated satellite table storing attributes like name, email, and address. Satellites usually have a time element involved, allowing for the historical tracking of changes. This makes it easy to reconstruct the state of an entity or a relationship at any point in time.

Data vault architecture employs a modular approach to data warehousing, using hubs, links, and satellites as its core components. Hubs offer a stable foundation based on unique business keys; Links capture relationships between these entities; and Satellites provide rich, time-variant details. Together, these components enable a scalable, auditable, and highly adaptive data warehouse design.

Example of a data vault architecture: Taking a close look from a B2B perspective

Modern business scenarios often involve complex relationships between multiple companies, products, orders, and transactions. Data vault architecture can be particularly useful in such settings for integrating disparate data sources and providing a unified view of the business.

For this example, let’s consider a B2B scenario involving a wholesale distributor that sells various products to retailers.

Key components in this B2B Example:

  1. Hub for companies
  2. Hub for products
  3. Link for orders
  4. Satellite for company details
  5. Satellite for product information
  6. Satellite for order status

Let us understand each of the above components in brief:

1. Hub for companies

In our wholesale distributor example, a Hub for companies would serve as the foundational table storing unique identifiers for different companies involved, whether they are suppliers, retailers, or the distributor itself.

The hub captures the essence of each business entity and would generally contain a unique company ID and some system-generated fields like a record timestamp.

2. Hub for products

Another foundational element would be the hub for products. Similar to the companies hub, this would store unique identifiers for each product that the distributor sells. Each entry might consist of a product ID, along with some system metadata like the timestamp.

A link table for orders would capture the relationships between companies and products, essentially storing each transaction. This table would contain keys from both the companies hub and the products hub, linking them together to indicate which company ordered which product. Additional fields could include an order ID and a timestamp, enabling tracking of each specific order

4. Satellite for company details

This satellite table would be attached to the companies hub and would contain additional descriptive information about each company, such as its name, address, and contact details.

This allows the distributor to maintain a rich set of data about each business partner. The table would also include a time dimension to track changes over time, such as a change in address or contact person.

5. Satellite for product information

Similarly, satellite for product information would be connected to the products hub. This table could store additional attributes for each product, such as its name, category, and price. Like other satellites, this table would also contain a time dimension for tracking historical changes, such as price adjustments or discontinuations.

6. Satellite for order status

This satellite table would be associated with the link for orders. It would capture time-variant details about the order, like its current status (e.g., “In Progress,” “Shipped,” “Delivered”), quantity ordered, and shipping information. This table enables the business to track the lifecycle of each order from placement to delivery.

The data vault architecture in this B2B example allows for flexible, scalable, and auditable data management. By using hubs for companies and products, the system gains stable foundational elements.

The link for orders captures the transactional relationships, while the satellites enrich these basic structures with detailed and time-variant information. Together, these components facilitate a holistic view of business operations and offer the adaptability to grow and evolve with the business.

5 Critical challenges of using a data vault architecture

A data vault architecture offers many advantages, but it is not without its challenges. The complex relationships between businesses, fluctuating market demands, and regulatory pressures make the B2B landscape a unique environment where these challenges may manifest differently.

Here are the key challenges in a data vault architecture:

  1. Complexity of implementation
  2. Increased latency for query performance
  3. Initial setup cost and time
  4. Skillset requirements
  5. Handling data quality and governance

Let us look at each of the above challenges in brief:

1. Complexity of implementation

Data vault architecture involves breaking down data into various components like hubs, links, and satellites. While this modularity provides numerous advantages, it also increases the complexity of the system.

The B2B environment, with its diverse business rules and relationships between multiple parties, further exacerbates this complexity. Implementing data vault in such a setting may require extensive planning and resources to accurately capture and model the intricate relationships.

2. Increased latency for query performance

Data vault’s normalized structure can result in a high number of tables and complex joins. This complexity can increase the time it takes to query the data warehouse, especially when rapid decision-making is often crucial.

Some businesses mitigate this by creating additional data marts or materialized views for reporting, but this adds another layer of complexity and maintenance.

3. Initial setup cost and time

Data vault architecture requires an initial investment in terms of both time and money, particularly in a B2B context where the data model must accommodate complex relationships and multiple data sources.

The extensive upfront work could delay the time-to-value, and businesses may need to consider this while planning their data strategy.

4. Skillset requirements

Effective implementation and management of a data vault architecture require specialized skills and expertise. Given the complex nature of B2B transactions and relationships, a team with a deep understanding of both data vault principles and the specific nuances of B2B operations is essential.

Finding or training personnel with these skills can be challenging and time-consuming.

5. Handling data quality and governance

Data quality and data governance are critical in any data project but can be particularly challenging in a B2B setting due to the multiplicity of data sources and the likelihood of data inconsistencies.

The modular structure of data vault can help in isolating issues, but the architecture itself doesn’t solve data quality problems. Data governance policies need to be robust, especially when dealing with sensitive or regulated information commonly found in B2B transactions.

So, while data vault architecture offers a robust framework for managing complex B2B data relationships, it comes with its set of challenges.

These include implementation complexity, potential latency in query performance, initial costs, skillset requirements, and data quality and governance issues. Organizations must carefully weigh these challenges against the benefits to make an informed decision.

6 Typical problems that data vault architecture can solve

Today, organizations face a variety of data-related challenges. Data vault architecture can offer robust solutions for many of these problems by providing a scalable, adaptable, and auditable framework for data management and analytics.

Here are some typical business problems that a data vault architecture can address:

  1. Data integration from multiple sources
  2. Mergers and acquisitions
  3. Compliance and auditing requirements
  4. Real-time analytics
  5. Scaling issues
  6. Complexity and change management

Now, let us look at each of the above problems in brief:

1. Data integration from multiple sources

Today, business operations often involve multiple partners, each using different systems and data formats. Integrating this data into a unified view is a common challenge.

Data vault architecture excels at bringing disparate data sources together in a way that retains their context and relationships. Its modular design allows for the easy addition or removal of data sources without requiring a complete overhaul of the existing data warehouse.

2. Mergers and acquisitions

In a fast-paced B2B environment, companies frequently merge or acquire other businesses. This results in the need to integrate disparate data architectures quickly.

Data vault’s modular and scalable design makes it easier to merge data from different companies into a single unified data warehouse, while maintaining data integrity and history.

3. Compliance and auditing requirements

Many B2B sectors like healthcare, finance, and supply chain are subject to rigorous compliance and auditing standards. Data vault’s inherent capability for maintaining an audit trail of all data changes makes it easier to meet these regulatory requirements.

This is critical for organizations that need to prove data lineage, history, and integrity for compliance purposes.

4. Real-time analytics

Timely decision-making is crucial in B2B scenarios. Data vault’s ability to support parallel processing enables faster data loads and query responses.

This is particularly beneficial for real-time analytics, where business insights need to be gleaned from data as it is captured.

5. Scaling issues

As businesses grow, their data architecture needs to scale along with them. Traditional data warehousing solutions can become increasingly complex and difficult to manage at scale.

Data vault architecture is inherently scalable, allowing businesses to easily add new data sources and scale out storage and processing capabilities as needed.

6. Complexity and change management

B2B environments are dynamic, with frequent changes in business rules, partnerships, and data schemas. Traditional data warehousing solutions may require significant time and effort to adapt to such changes.

Data vault, with its agile framework, allows for greater flexibility and easier change management. It provides the ability to adapt to new business requirements without having to redesign the entire data model.

Data vault architecture offers a compelling set of solutions for the complex and evolving data needs of B2B businesses. Its modular design, scalability, and emphasis on maintaining a full audit trail make it a particularly good fit for organizations facing challenges with data integration, compliance, real-time analytics, and adaptability.

Where to learn about data vault architecture: Books and resources

There are several popular books and online resources that offer deep insights into data vault architecture.

However, please note that my information might be a bit outdated and you may want to verify the availability and relevance of these resources. Here are some recommendations:


  1. Building a Scalable Data Warehouse with Data Vault 2.0 by Dan Linstedt and Michael OlschimkeAnother authoritative book that covers the architecture, design, and creation of a scalable data warehouse using Data Vault 2.0.

Online Resources

  1. Data Vault Alliance Website

A comprehensive resource for articles, tutorials, and courses on Data Vault.

  1. Kent Graziano’s Blog

Kent Graziano is a leading expert on data vault, and his blog contains valuable insights and tutorials.

  1. YouTube Data Vault Series

Various data vault tutorials and case studies can be found on YouTube, providing real-world examples and best practices.

  1. Data Modeling Zone

Offers a variety of talks, webinars, and workshops focused on Data Vault among other data modeling approaches.

Before diving into these resources, it’s always good to check their most recent reviews to ensure they are up-to-date with the latest practices and technologies in the field of data vault architecture.

In summary

Data vault architecture is a modern approach to designing data warehouses that offers flexibility, scalability, and adaptability.

Comprised of hubs, links, and satellites, this architecture allows for easy integration of disparate data sources, making it ideal for complex B2B environments.

It excels in solving challenges like data integration, mergers and acquisitions, compliance, real-time analytics, scaling, and change management. By creating a unified, auditable, and extendable framework, data vault supports businesses in maintaining a dynamic and comprehensive data ecosystem.

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