Data Reliability Engineer: 9 Skills to Help You Become One!

Updated November 21st, 2023
Data reliability engineer

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A data reliability engineer, or DRE, is a specialized role that sits at the intersection of data engineering and site reliability engineering (SRE).

In the digital era, where data is often described as the new oil, managing and safeguarding this invaluable resource is critical. That’s where data reliability engineers come into play.

Their primary responsibility is to ensure the robustness, reliability, and availability of data pipelines and storage systems.

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In this article, we will discuss:

  1. What is data reliability engineer?
  2. The role of a data reliability engineer
  3. Essential skills you need to have to land this role
  4. How to clear the data reliability engineer interview?
  5. Job description of a data reliability engineer
  6. Differences between DRE and SRE

Ready? Let’s dive in!

Table of contents

  1. What is data reliability engineering?
  2. What role does a data reliability engineer fulfil?
  3. 9 essential technical skills for a data reliability engineer
  4. Data reliability engineer interview guide: 5 important questions to ask
  5. Top 5 data reliability engineer job descriptions to look for
  6. Salary of data reliability engineer
  7. Data reliability engineer jobs
  8. Data reliability engineer vs site reliability engineer: A tabular form
  9. Summary
  10. Related reads

What is data reliability engineering?

Data reliability engineering is a specialization within the field of data engineering focused on ensuring that data pipelines, storage, and retrieval systems are reliable, robust, and scalable. It borrows principles from software engineering, particularly site reliability engineering (SRE), to apply them to data-intensive systems.

The goal is to ensure that data, which is a critical business asset, is consistently available, accurate, and timely for analysts, data scientists, and other stakeholders.

A data reliability engineer (DRE) is a professional responsible for implementing and managing data reliability engineering principles. They act as the guardians of data integrity and availability within an organization.

What role does a data reliability engineer fulfil?

The role of a data reliability engineer (DRE) is multi-faceted, encompassing a range of responsibilities to ensure that an organization’s data systems are both reliable and robust.

Here are some of the key roles of data reliability engineer:

  1. Monitoring and alerting
  2. Data quality checks
  3. Scalability
  4. Disaster recovery and redundancy
  5. Optimization
  6. Documentation
  7. Collaboration

Let us understand each of them in detail:

1. Monitoring and alerting

A DRE sets up and maintains monitoring systems that continuously check the health of data pipelines, databases, and other data-related components.

These systems generate alerts based on predefined criteria, like latency spikes, error rates, or system downtimes.

Why is it important?

Real-time monitoring allows for immediate action in case of an anomaly or failure, thereby reducing downtime and potential business impact. It helps maintain service level agreements (SLAs) by ensuring the systems are up and running efficiently.

2. Data quality checks

Data quality is assessed through automated tests that verify accuracy, consistency, and completeness.

Checks can include identifying duplicate records, null values, or inconsistent data types.

Why is it important?

Poor data quality can lead to erroneous insights, making it critical for DREs to ensure that the data is of high quality. Regular quality checks prevent issues from propagating downstream to analysts and data scientists, who rely on this data for insights.

3. Scalability

DREs design and implement systems that can handle growing data needs over time, considering factors like volume, velocity, and variety of data.

Why is it important?

As organizations grow, the amount and types of data they handle can exponentially increase. A scalable system is crucial to accommodate this growth without degradation in performance or reliability.

4. Disaster recovery and redundancy

Disaster recovery plans are formulated to restore data systems in case of catastrophic failures.

Data backup and redundant systems are also managed to ensure data durability.

Why is it important?

Data is a valuable asset. Having a disaster recovery plan ensures that this asset is safeguarded against unforeseen events, such as hardware failures, data corruption, or even natural disasters.

5. Optimization

DREs tune performance by optimizing database queries, improving data storage formats, or enhancing pipeline processes.

Why is it important?

Poorly optimized systems can be slow and expensive to operate, impacting both operational costs important the user experience for data practitioners.

6. Documentation

All aspects of the data systems, including architecture, processes, and changes, are well-documented.

Why is it important?

Documentation serves as a roadmap for both current team members and newcomers, ensuring that the knowledge is not lost and that systems can be understood and maintained efficiently.

7. Collaboration

DREs work closely with data engineers, data analysts, data scientists, and other technical and business units to ensure that everyone has access to reliable data.

Why is it important?

Data is often used cross-functionally. A DRE ensures that all departments are aligned in terms of data needs and that data-related projects support organizational goals.

The roles and responsibilities of a data reliability engineer are central to the successful operation of any data-intensive organization.

By focusing on these key areas, DREs help to safeguard the integrity, availability, and performance of vital data systems.

9 Essential technical skills for a data reliability engineer

Selecting a data reliability engineer (DRE) requires a diverse skill set that combines elements from data engineering, software development, and systems administration.

Here’s a breakdown of the key technical skills that should be looked for:

  1. Database management
  2. Programming
  3. Big data technologies
  4. DevOps and automation tools
  5. Site reliability engineering (SRE) principles
  6. Networking basics
  7. Cloud computing
  8. Version control
  9. Security best practices

Let us understand each of them in detail:

1. Database management

Familiarity with various types of databases, such as relational databases (e.g., MySQL, PostgreSQL), NoSQL databases (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra), and columnar databases (e.g., Google BigQuery, Amazon Redshift). Knowledge of database design, normalization, and query optimization can come in handy.

Databases are foundational to data reliability engineering. Understanding different types of databases and their internal mechanisms allows you to design more resilient and performant systems.

2. Programming

Familiarity with various types of databases, such as relational databases (e.g., MySQL, PostgreSQL), NoSQL databases (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra), and columnar databases (e.g., Google BigQuery, Amazon Redshift). Knowledge of database design, normalization, and query optimization can come in handy.

Databases are foundational to data reliability engineering. Understanding different types of databases and their internal mechanisms allows you to design more resilient and performant systems.

3. Big data technologies

You should have expereince with big data platforms like Hadoop and Spark, in addition to having the knowledge of data streaming platforms like Kafka. These platforms are often used to process and store massive volumes of data, and thus has become a common requirements in many different modern organizations.

You should also have a know-how to use these technologies to ensure scalability and reliability.

4. DevOps and automation tools

You must be familiar with containerization tools like Docker and data orchestration platforms such as Kubernetes. Additionally, you must also have experience with CI/CD tools like Jenkins or GitLab CI.

Automation is key to achieving high levels of reliability. DevOps tools enable you to automate various aspects of system deployment, management, and scaling.

5. Site reliability engineering (SRE) principles

You must have a thorough understanding on SRE fundamentals, including SLAs, SLOs and error budgets. You must also be skilled in deploying monitoring and alerting systems like Prometheus, Grafana, or Datadog.

These principles and tools help to quantify reliability and performance metrics, which are essential for maintaining high-quality data systems.

6. Networking basics

You must have a basic understanding of TCP/IP, DNS, and general networking fundamentals. You must also have knowledge of network protocols commonly used in distributed systems. Networking knowledge is crucial for debugging issues that might arise during data transmission or access over a network.

7. Cloud computing

You should be experienced with cloud services like AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud. Cloud platforms are increasingly popular for hosting data infrastructure, offering benefits like scalability and redundancy. Therefore, an understanding of cloud-specific data services such as AWS S3, Google BigQuery can be useful.

8. Version control

You must be familiar with version control systems like Git. These allow for tracking the changes, which is crucial for debugging and collaboration. An understanding of how to manage and version both code and data schemes can be useful.

9. Security best practices

Data is often sensitive. Security measures are crucial to protect the data and maintain compliance with various regulations. You should have a thorough understanding of encryption, access controls, and secure data transmission techniques.

Each of these technical skills equips a data reliability engineer to tackle the diverse challenges that come with ensuring data infrastructure is reliable, secure, and scalable.

Continuous learning and adaptation are key, as the technology landscape is ever-changing.

Data reliability engineer interview guide: 5 important questions to ask

Here are some common questions to ask in interviews for selecting a reliable data reliability engineer, categorized by area of expertise:

1. Can you explain the CAP theorem and its implications for distributed systems?

You can start by stating that CAP stands for Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance. In a distributed data system:

  • Consistency means that all nodes see the same data at the same time.
  • Availability means that a system is available for reads and writes even when some nodes are unavailable.
  • Partition tolerance means the system continues to function even when network partitions occur.

You could explain that according to the CAP theorem, it’s impossible for a distributed system to simultaneously provide all three guarantees. A system can only provide two out of the three. For example:

  • CA systems prioritize consistency and availability but may fail in cases of network partitioning.
  • CP systems prioritize consistency and partition tolerance but may not be as readily available.
  • AP systems prioritize availability and partition tolerance but may suffer from inconsistencies.

End by discussing how understanding the CAP theorem helps in making architectural decisions based on specific business needs and trade-offs.

2. What are data lakes and data warehouses? How do they differ?

  • Data lakes: Unstructured or semi-structured raw data is stored. Data is not processed until it needs to be used. It’s schema-less, so you can store data in its native form. Useful for big data and real-time analytics.
  • Data warehouses: Highly structured, processed, and cleaned data. Schema-on-write is implemented. It’s designed for query and analysis and generally not suitable for unstructured data.


  • Schema on write (Data warehouse) vs schema on read (Data lake)
  • Data maturity: raw (Data lake) vs processed (Data warehouse)
  • Storage cost: Generally cheaper in data lakes
  • Query performance: Generally faster in data warehouses

3. Explain the concept of Idempotence. Why is it important in data engineering?

Idempotence means that performing an operation multiple times will yield the same result as performing it just once. This is particularly important in data engineering to ensure data consistency during retries or failures.

For example, if a pipeline fails and you have to rerun a specific task, having an idempotent operation ensures that you don’t introduce duplicates or inconsistencies in the data.

Idempotence is essential for robust, fault-tolerant systems that can recover gracefully from failures.

4. Can you describe the steps you would take to monitor and ensure the reliability of a real-time data pipeline?

The following are the steps used to monitor and ensure reliability of real-time data pipelines:

  1. Logging: Implement comprehensive logging for data events, system events, and errors.
  2. Alerts: Set up real-time alerts for anomalies like latency spikes, high error rates, or system downtime.
  3. Metrics: Monitor KPIs like latency, throughput, error rates, and resource utilization.
  4. Automated Tests: Integrate automated tests to check data integrity, format, and consistency.
  5. Backup and Recovery: Implement strategies for quick recovery in case of failures, including backup systems.
  6. Dashboard: Use monitoring dashboards to visualize metrics and KPIs.
  7. Manual Checks: Periodically perform manual data verification to catch issues that automated checks might not.
  8. Performance Tuning: Regularly review performance metrics and tune the system as required.
  9. Documentation: Keep all monitoring processes well-documented for easier debugging and onboarding.

5. How would you design a system to handle data versioning?

By following the below steps we can design a system to handle data versioning:

  1. Timestamps: Use timestamps to save different versions of the data. This enables point-in-time queries.
  2. Immutable data: Treat data as immutable. Instead of updating records, append new versions.
  3. Change data capture (CDC): Implement CDC to track changes in the data over time.
  4. Metadata: Store metadata along with the data to capture version-related information.
  5. Branching and merging: Use branching and merging strategies similar to source control to manage versions for more complex use-cases.
  6. APIs: Use versioned APIs to access data so that clients can specify which version of the data they require.
  7. Garbage collection: Implement a garbage collection mechanism to remove obsolete versions if necessary.

By designing a system with these features, you can ensure that the data remains versioned, traceable, and manageable over time.

Top 5 data reliability engineer job descriptions to look for

The role of a data reliability engineer can vary significantly depending on the specific needs for your organization. However, here are some common types of Data Reliability Engineer jobs to look for while selecting a reliable data engineer:

1. Data pipeline reliability engineer

This role primarily focuses on ensuring the robustness and reliability of data pipelines that move data from various sources to destinations. These could be ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) pipelines, streaming pipelines, or batch jobs.


  • Develop, deploy, and maintain ETL or streaming data pipelines.
  • Monitor performance and ensure high availability.
  • Debug pipeline issues and implement fixes.
  • Optimize pipelines for speed, cost, and accuracy.

Skills required

  • Strong programming skills, often in languages like Python, Java, or Scala.
  • Experience with data pipeline tools like Apache Kafka, Apache Spark, and Airflow.
  • Deep understanding of distributed systems concepts and data storage solutions.

2. Data storage reliability engineer

In this role, the focus is on ensuring that the storage systems like databases or data lakes are reliable, scalable, and performant.


  • Database administration and optimization.
  • Backup and recovery procedures.
  • Ensuring high availability and fault tolerance.

Skills required

  • Proficiency in SQL and NoSQL databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, etc.
  • Understanding of distributed storage solutions like Hadoop HDFS, Amazon S3.
  • Experience in data replication, sharding, and partitioning.

3. Data analytics reliability engineer

This role involves maintaining and ensuring the reliability of analytics platforms used by data scientists and analysts for insights and reporting.


  • Maintain and optimize data analytics platforms like Tableau, Power BI, or custom solutions.
  • Work closely with data scientists to ensure robustness of machine learning models in production.
  • Implement monitoring and alerting for analytics platforms.

Skills required

  • Understanding of data visualization tools and analytics platforms.
  • Programming skills in Python or R, especially for data manipulation and analysis.
  • Knowledge of machine learning operations (MLOps).

4. Real-time data reliability engineer

This role is focused on systems that require real-time data processing, such as real-time analytics, monitoring dashboards, or IoT applications.


  • Ensure the reliability and low-latency performance of real-time data processing systems.
  • Monitor real-time data flows for anomalies and faults.
  • Tune real-time processing engines for optimal performance.

Skills required

  • Experience with real-time data processing frameworks like Apache Kafka Streams, Apache Flink, or Storm.
  • Strong analytical skills for troubleshooting under tight time constraints.
  • Understanding of real-time analytics and dashboarding tools.

5. Data governance and compliance reliability engineer

This role focuses on ensuring that the data handling and processing comply with legal regulations like GDPR, CCPA, or HIPAA.


  • Implement and maintain data access controls.
  • Audit data processing systems for compliance with legal regulations.
  • Collaborate with legal and compliance departments to understand data handling requirements.

Skills required

  • Strong understanding of compliance frameworks and regulations relevant to data.
  • Experience with data encryption, anonymization, and secure data transfer protocols.
  • Skills in auditing and documentation.

These roles often require a combination of data engineering, software engineering, and systems engineering skills, making them challenging but highly rewarding career options.

Salary of a data reliability engineer

The salary of a data reliability engineer (DRE) can vary significantly depending on several factors, including their experience, location, and the specific organization they work for.

Data reliability engineers play a critical role in ensuring the integrity, availability, and performance of data systems and infrastructure within a company. They work to minimize data downtime, prevent data loss, and optimize data pipelines, making their role increasingly important in today’s data-driven world.

In the United States, the salary of a data reliability engineer typically ranges from around $80,000 to $160,000 or more per year. Entry-level DREs with limited experience may start at the lower end of this range, while those with several years of experience and specialized skills can command higher salaries.

DREs working in major tech hubs like Silicon Valley, New York City, or Seattle often earn higher salaries due to the higher cost of living in these areas.

Experience and expertise also play a significant role in determining a DRE’s salary. DREs who have a strong track record of successfully managing complex data systems, implementing automation and monitoring solutions, and preventing data-related incidents are likely to be in high demand and can negotiate higher compensation packages.

Additionally, certifications and advanced degrees in relevant fields, such as data engineering or computer science, can also boost a DRE’s earning potential.

In summary, the salary of a data reliability engineer can vary widely but is generally competitive, reflecting the critical role they play in ensuring data reliability and availability for organizations. Factors such as experience, location, and expertise are key determinants of their compensation, with opportunities for career advancement and increased earning potential as they gain more experience and skills in the field.

Data reliabitliy engineer jobs

Data reliability engineer jobs have become increasingly important in today’s data-driven world, where organizations depend on accurate and accessible data for making informed decisions. DREs are responsible for ensuring the reliability, availability, and performance of data systems and infrastructure.

Their primary goal is to prevent data-related incidents, minimize downtime, and optimize data pipelines. Here’s a more detailed look at the key aspects of DRE roles:

  1. Data infrastructure management
  2. Monitoring and alerting
  3. Data backup and recovery
  4. Incident response and resolution
  5. Automation and optimization
  6. Collaboration
  7. Scalability and resilience

Let’s look at them in detail:

1. Data infrastructure management

DREs are tasked with designing, building, and maintaining data infrastructure. This includes setting up data storage solutions, databases, data warehouses, and data pipelines.

They ensure that these systems are scalable, robust, and capable of handling large volumes of data efficiently. DREs work closely with data engineers and database administrators to implement best practices and maintain data integrity.

2. Monitoring and alerting

To maintain data reliability, DREs implement robust monitoring and alerting systems. They continuously monitor data pipelines and infrastructure for any anomalies, performance bottlenecks, or potential issues. When irregularities are detected, they receive alerts and take immediate action to resolve problems, preventing data downtime and loss.

3. Data backup and recovery

DREs are responsible for creating and managing data backup and recovery strategies. They ensure that data is regularly backed up and can be restored quickly in case of system failures or data corruption. This ensures data availability and minimizes the risk of data loss.

4. Incident response and resolution

When data-related incidents occur, such as system failures or data breaches, DREs play a crucial role in incident response. They investigate the root causes of incidents, implement immediate fixes, and work to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future. This proactive approach helps organizations maintain data reliability and security.

5. Automation and optimization

DREs leverage automation tools and techniques to streamline data operations and optimize performance. They may implement automation scripts, data orchestration tools, and machine learning algorithms to detect and address issues before they impact data reliability. By continuously optimizing data pipelines, DREs contribute to improved data quality and efficiency.

6. Collaboration

DREs collaborate closely with cross-functional teams, including data scientists, data analysts, software engineers, and IT professionals. They communicate effectively to understand the data requirements of different stakeholders and ensure that data systems align with organizational goals.

7. Scalability and resilience

As organizations grow, data infrastructure must scale to meet increasing demands. DREs design systems that can scale horizontally and vertically to accommodate growing data volumes and user loads. They also build in redundancy and failover mechanisms to ensure data systems remain resilient and available.

In conclusion, data reliability engineer jobs are pivotal for organizations that rely on data for their operations. These professionals are responsible for maintaining the integrity and availability of data systems, ensuring that data is always accessible, accurate, and secure.

Their work involves a combination of infrastructure management, monitoring, automation, and collaboration with other teams to uphold data reliability standards and mitigate data-related risks. The demand for skilled DREs continues to grow as the importance of data reliability becomes increasingly evident in the modern business landscape.

Data reliability engineer vs site reliability engineer: A tabular form

Both data reliability engineers (DREs) and site reliability engineers (SREs) play crucial roles in modern technology organizations.

Understanding these differences can help aspiring engineers decide which career path aligns better with their interests and skills.

Here’s a table to better differentiate between these two roles:

AspectData reliability engineer (DRE)Site reliability engineer (SRE)
Primary focusEnsuring the reliability, accuracy, and availability of data pipelines and storage.Ensuring the reliability, availability, and performance of web services and applications.
Responsibilities1. Maintaining and optimizing data pipelines.
2. Ensuring data storage systems are robust and fault-tolerant.
3. Data validation and quality checks.
1. Managing service deployments.
2. Monitoring service health and performance.
3. Incident response and recovery.
Key technologies1. Data processing frameworks (e.g., Apache Spark, Flink).
2. ETL tools (e.g., Airflow, Talend).
3. Databases (SQL, NoSQL)
1. Container orchestration (e.g., Kubernetes).
2. Monitoring tools (e.g., Prometheus, Grafana).
3. Cloud services (AWS, GCP, Azure)
Programming languagesPython, Java, Scala, SQLPython, Go, Ruby, Shell scripting
Required skillset1. Data modeling and architecture.
2. Distributed systems.
3. Data pipeline development.
1. System administration.
2. Network fundamentals.
3. Software engineering practices.
Common metrics1. Data latency
2. Data freshness
3. Data error rates

1. Uptime
2. Latency
3. Error rates

Compliance and governanceMay work closely with legal teams to ensure data compliance like GDPR, CCPA.May work on application-level security and compliance but generally less focus on data-specific regulations.

If you are interested in data systems, data pipelines, and enjoy solving challenges related to large-scale data processing, a career as a Data Reliability Engineer might be more suited for you.

On the other hand, if you are more interested in network protocols, cloud computing, and ensuring service availability, you might find a career as a Site Reliability Engineer more appealing.

Both roles offer excellent career growth opportunities and are in high demand as organizations increasingly rely on data and online services.

Summarizing it all together

Becoming a data reliability engineer is not just about mastering a set of tools or technologies; it’s about adopting a mindset geared towards ensuring data quality, reliability, and availability.

As businesses become more data-centric, the role of a DRE becomes invaluable, offering not just job security but also a fulfilling and impactful career.

Remember, the journey to becoming a data reliability engineer is a marathon, not a sprint. With a blend of continuous learning, hands-on experience, and a focus on problem-solving, you’ll be well on your way to contributing significantly to the data reliability landscape.

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